Aurora Masthead.

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Western mountain stream.

Annotated Bibliography of Riparian Ecosystems
Primary Literature Sources
by Jack Williams

 Books and selected journal articles of interest

Chaney, E., W. Elmore, and W.S. Platts. 1990. Livestock grazing on western riparian areas. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Northwest Resource Information Center. [available at many BLM offices] General management guide to western riparian areas affected by livestock grazing. Case studies described from Arizona, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming.

Costanza, R. 1992. Toward an operational definition of ecosystem health. Pages 239-256 in R. Costanza et al., editors. Ecosystem health: new goals for environmental management. Island Press, Washington, D.C. One of the first major works to explore application of the health concept to natural systems. A good introduction to the subject, but little information specific to riparian areas.

Dopppelt, B., M. Scurlock, C. Frissell, and J. Karr. 1993. Entering the watershed: a new approach to save America's river ecosystems. Island Press, Washington, D.C. Comprehensive recommendations for managing entire riverine ecosystems with an emphasis on the federal laws, policies and programs affecting the conservation and management of America's rivers.

Gregory, S.V., F.J. Swanson, W.A. McKee, and K.W. Cummins. 1991. An ecosystem perspective of riparian zones. BioScience. 41:540-551. Excellent review article on the importance of viewing riparian areas as ecological systems, rather than as narrow green strips along streams.

Hynes, H.B.N. 1970. The ecology of running waters. University of Toronto Press. A classic text on riverine ecosystems with a good review of international studies and their results. Topics range from water chemistry to algae to benthic invertebrates and fishes.

Karr, J.R. 1991. Biological integrity: a long neglected aspect of water resource management. Ecological Applications. 1:66-84. Biological integrity refers to the habitat's ability to support and maintain a balanced, integrated, adaptive community of organisms having a species composition, diversity, and functional organization comparable to that of natural habitat of the region. The concept is critical to understanding the historical conditions and desired future condition of riparian areas.

Kauffman, J.B., R.L. Beschta, N. Otting, and D. Lytjen. 1997. An ecological perspective of riparian and stream restoration in the western United States. Fisheries 22(5):12-24. Describes restoration strategies for riparian areas. Emphasis on passive restoration and facilitating the self- healing of riparian ecosystems.

Kohm, K.A., and J.f. Franklin (editors). 1997. Creating a forestry for the 21st century: the science of ecosystem management. Island Press, Washington, D.C. Chapter 4 on riparian management (by S.V. Gregory) is an excellent discussion on riparian ecology with an emphasis on watershed-scale management and ecosystem processes. Emphasis on the Pacific Northwest, where many current perspectives on riparian management have been developed.

Leopold, L.B. 1994. A view of the river. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. A very readable review of the hydraulics and geomorphology of river channels. Excellent descriptions of channel measurement and appearance, as well as stream flows and their effects on channel shape.

Maser, C., and J. Sedell. 1994. From the forest to the sea: the ecology of wood in streams, rivers, estuaries, and oceans. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida. A fascinating historical and ecological perspective on the ecology of living and downed wood in riverine ecosystems.

Meehan, W.R. (editor). 1991. Influences of forest and rangeland management on salmonid fishes and their habitats. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 19, Bethesda, Maryland. Good reference book containing detailed chapters on impacts of chemicals, roads, mining, livestock grazing, recreation, and forestry practices on trout streams.

Naiman, R.J. (editor). 1992. Watershed management: balancing sustainability and environmental change. Springer-Verlag, New York. An excellent, basic reference on stream ecology with an emphasis on theory and practices as developed in the Pacific Northwest.

Naiman, R.J., J.J. Magnuson, D.M. McKnight, and J.A. Stanford. 1995. The freshwater imperative: a research agenda. Island Press, Washington, D.C. Excellent description of the conservation status of freshwater resources and why freshwater ecosystems are invaluable to our society. [related article published by many of the same authors in the journal Science; October 27, 1995; Vol 270]

National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of aquatic ecosystems: science, technology, and public policy. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Top National Research Council scientists examine failures and successes of restoration programs for lakes, rivers, and wetlands. Good critique of why many past restoration efforts have failed.

Prichard, D. et al. 1995. Riparian area management: process for assessing proper functioning condition. Bureau of Land Management, Denver, Colorado. [available from most BLM offices] Describes the use and measurement of functioning condition on riparian habitats. Proper functioning condition depends upon riparian and stream channels possessing adequate plants and other structural elements to trap sediment and ameliorate flood energies. Emphasis is on riparian habitats of western range lands.

Reisner, M. 1993. Cadillac desert (revised edition). Penguin Books, New York. Classic treatment on human abuse of water and rivers and the role of irrigation and river system management on the development of the western United States.

Rosgen, D. 1996. Applied river morphology. Wildland Hydrology, Pagosa Springs, Colorado. A detailed and comprehensive reference to ecological processes of river ecosystems. Channel classification and river geomorphology are described and illustrated by numerous color figures.

Van Haveren, B.P., J.E. Williams, M.L. Pattison, and J.R. Haugh. 1997. Restoring the ecological integrity of public lands. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 52(4):226-231. Describes the evolution of land management policies within the Bureau of Land Management and the increasing emphasis on management and restoration of riparian areas in the western United States.

Waters, T.F. 1995. Sediment in streams: sources, biological effects and control. American Fisheries Society Monograph 7, Bethesda, Maryland. Describes sources of stream sedimentation, effects of sediment on invertebrates and fishes, control of sediments through proper management, and restoration techniques.

Williams, J.E., C.A. Wood, and M.P. Dombeck (editors). 1997. Watershed restoration: principles and practices. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. Restoration strategies with an emphasis on entire ecosystems and watersheds. Proper management of riparian areas is described in detail. Riparian management also is featured in many of the case studies from around the country.

Scientific journals frequently containing articles on riparian management

Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. This is a publication of the Soil and Water Conservation Society, 7515 N.E. Ankeny Road, Ankeny, Iowa 50021. The July-August 1997 issue was devoted to ecological restoration practices.

Fisheries. This is a publication of the American Fisheries Society, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 110, Bethesda, Maryland 20814. The May 1997 issue was devoted to watershed restoration.

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